Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Currency - Bahrain - 1 Dinar- Year 2006

Item Code:  92/BH-1

Al Hedaya Al Khalifiya School in Muharraq
Sail and Pearl Monument; Galloping Arabian horses
His Majesty King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain
155 x 74 mm  

Obverse description
Education in Bahrain
Bahrain has the oldest public education system in the Arabian Peninsula. The system was established in 1930 when the Bahraini government assumed responsibility for operating two pre-existing primary public schools for boys. Subsequently, separate girls' schools and various universities were established in the 20th century. According to data from the 2010 census, the literacy rate of Bahrain stands at 94.6%. As of 2008, education expenditure accounts for 2.9% of Bahrain's GDP.
Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia Boys school.

History: Quranic schools were the only source of education in Bahrain prior to the 20th century; such schools were primarily dedicated to the study of the Qur'an. The first modern school to open in the country was a missionary elementary school setup in 1892 (according to one account) in Manama by the American Dutch Reformed Church, with the school's syllabus comprising English, Mathematics and the study of Christianity. Leading merchants in the country sent their children to the school until it was closed down in 1933 due to financial difficulties. The school reopened some years later under the name of Al Raja School where it operates till the present day.

The Jafaria School in Manama, 1931.

Parents who could afford to fund their children's studies often sent them to schools in Bombay or Baghdad. Families of a predominately religious background often sent their children to religious institutions in the region, to madrasas in Mecca and Al-Hasa in mainland Arabia for Sunni students and to Najaf and Karbala for Shia students. As a result of this traditional religious education, there was a negative stigma attached to the American Mission School and only a few parents were bold enough to send their children to the school. Prior to the establishment of a public school in the country, Shia and Sunni students had limited interactions during their education. This can be attributed to different environments of learning; outside of religious institutions, Shia students acquired knowledge from matams whereas Sunni students did from majlises although neither matam nor majlis were officially recognised as educational institutions in their own right.

Figure 1A village school, circa 1937.

Reverse description:

Sail Monument

The Sail Monument is a memorial dedicated to one of Bahrain's most important industries, pearl diving. It overlooks the Sheikh Isa Bin Sulman Causeway and is surrounded by hotels, offices, banks and other diplomatic buildings. The monument is of two huge dhow sails that resemble two shells twisting around a pearl. It is especially beautiful at night when it is illuminated.

     Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa

Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (Arabicحمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة‎‎; born 28 January 1950) is the 1st King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its 2nd Emir (from 6 March 1999). He is the son of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the previous and 1st Emir. The country has been ruled by the Al Khalifa dynasty since 1783.

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa was born on 28 January 1950 in RiffaBahrain. His parents were Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, then Crown Prince, and Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa.

After attending Manama secondary school in Bahrain, Hamad was sent to England to attend Applegarth College in GodalmingSurrey before taking a place at The Leys School in Cambridge. Hamad then underwent military training, first with the British Army at Mons Officer Cadet School at Aldershot in Hampshire, graduating in September 1968. Four years later, in June 1972, Hamad attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, graduating the following June with a degree in leadership.

Hamad was designated as heir apparent by his father on 27 June 1964. In 1968, he was appointed as the chairman of the irrigation council and Manama municipal council. He was commissioned into the Bahrain National Guard on 16 February 1968 and appointed as its commander the same year, remaining in that post until 1969 when he was appointed as the commander-in-chief of the Bahrain Defence Force. In 1970, Hamad became the head of the Bahraini department of defence and the vice-chairman of the administrative council, remaining in both offices until 1971. From 1971 to 1988 he was the minister of state for defence.

In October 1977, Hamad started learning to fly helicopters, successfully completing the training in January 1978. He then worked to establish the Bahrain Amiri Air Force, which came into being in 1987 when the defence force air wing was reconstituted as an air force.

On the death of his father Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Hamad became Emir of Bahrain on 6 March 1999. As Emir, Hamad brought several political reforms to Bahrain.

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